Aquí les dejo resumen de una investigación que realicé con uno de mis clientes y que está presentando mi compañero Cesar Yacsirk en el Tercer Congreso Mundial de Psicología Positiva organizado en la ciudad de Los Angeles, California. La referencia es S 254 Effect of Positivity on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors en http://ippanetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/IPPAThirdWorldCongressProgram.pdf.
Research about Emotions has shown they have effects on processing information. Specifically, negative emotions close the scope of attention to identify threats and preparing to flight-or fight response, since positive emotions broaden attention´s scope and promote receptivity and opening. Positivity ratio, as it was defined by Barbara Fredrickson, implies an ability to process negative emotions and evoke positive ones. Based on this, a hypothesis of this research was that Positivity of workers shape perception of their workplace.
On the other hand, research has shown that perception of organization or perceived climate, has an impact on important aspects of attitudes of workers, such as job involvement, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, which in turn affect the effort they delivered on their jobs, and ends up having an influence on performance. As follows of research of authors such as Netemeyer, Brown and Leigh, Eisenberger, Sims, among others, perception of the support given by the organization and perceived fairness are key factors of the climate involved on performance. That’s why on this research, Perceived Organizational Support (POS) and Perceived Opportunity for Reward (POR) were chosen as main aspect of perceived climate involved on performance.
Besides, Organ identified two different kind of performance behavior; in-role performance or “task performance”, which include those behaviors relating specifically to the job and core job duties, and a kind of “contextual performance”, defined as Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB’s), which encompass discretionary behaviors, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
A research was conducted to assess the influence of positivity ratio on perceived support and opportunity for reward of the workplace, and to evaluate influence of these variables on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.
Full-time working adults and their supervisors completed Fredrickson´s Positivity Self-Test (PST) during three working days to obtain the average. They also completed a Perceived Climate Scale (PCS) composed of POS (Eisenberger) and POR (Sims & Szilagyi), as used by Douglas. Supervisors completed Podsakoff´s Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire (OCBQ) about each worker. PST and PCS´s results were matched with OCBQ correspondent results, giving a total of 76. Regression analysis was performed with additional information about level.
A 14.5% of variance de OCBQ was explained by PST and Level on the organization. The Beta of PST on OCBQ was of 0.287, significant at p<0.01. Level´s Beta was of 0.262 significant at p<0.02. It was found a beta of 0.772 among the two measures of perceived climate, POS and POR. None relationship has found between Positivity on perceived climate, neither between that and OCBQ results. Positivity seems to behave in an independent way from perceived organization characteristic included on this study, while acts as a predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.
Based on this study and following Affective Events Theory (Weiss & Cropanzano) and Demand Resource Model (Baker & Demeroutti), some ways to influence on OC behaviors would be: 1) providing positive emotion at the workplace and reducing negative ones; 2) providing Organizational and Job Resources, and 3) developing internal resources as Emotional Intelligence and Resilience on the workforce.